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Modeling urban parking


The patterns of urban parking supply and demand are highly heterogeneous, in space and in time, and establishing parking policy that guarantees efficient use of urban parking space on the one hand and encourages the use of public transport on the other is not easy. However, every city requires adequate parking policy which goal is to determine parking prices and regulations. Parking policy should compromise between contradictory demands of individual (low parking prices, fast parking search, short walk to destination) and society (efficient use of urban space and social equality in regards to the use of collected fees and negative environmental externalities – air pollution, noise, congestion).​

We study urban parking with the help of the agent-based simulation models that are based on the adequate representation of drivers’ parking search. We reveal this behavior in serious computer games and field studies. We aim at a series of systemic solutions that account for the local parking regulations and can be applied in any city.

Collaborators: Dr. Eran Ben-Elia, Ben Gurion University


  1. N. Fulman, I. Benenson, 2017, Simulating parking for establishing parking prices, Procedia Computer Science 109C, 911–916​

  2. Levy, N., Benenson, I. (corresponding author), 2015, GIS-based Method for Assessing City Parking Patterns, Journal of Transport Geography, 46, 220–231

  3. Levy, N., Render, M., I. Benenson (corresponding author), 2015, Spatially Explicit Modeling of Parking Search as a Tool for Urban Parking Facilities and Policy Assessment. Transport Policy, 39 p 9-20

  4. N. Levy, K. Martens, I. Benenson (corresponding author), 2013, Exploring Cruising for On-Street Parking Using Agent-Based and Analytical Models, Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, 9 (9), 773–797

  5. I. Benenson, K. Martens and Birfir, S. 2008, "PARKAGENT: an agent-based model for parking in the city", Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 32, 431–439

  6. K. Martens, I. Benenson, 2008 Evaluating urban parking policies using an Agent-Based model of driver parking behavior, Transportation Research Records: Journal of the Transportation Research Board: N2046, 37-44

  7. I. Benenson, K. Martens, 2008, From modeling parking search to establishing urban policy, Künstliche Intelligenz, 3, p. 3-8


Funded by:

  • Israeli Prime Minister Office, Innovation in Transportation Fund, Adaptive Dynamic Parking Pricing: From theory to Practical Implementation, 2016-2018

  • Israeli Science Foundation, Tessellation of urban parking prices, 2018 – 2021

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